# Mathematics

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**Mathematics** is an important tool in every fields of engineering.

In other words, *Mathematics* is the science of pattern, that Engineers' seek out whether found in numbers, space, science, computers, imaginary abstractions, or elsewhere. The important subdivisions for engineers are sown below;

## Contents

[show]## SubdivisionsEdit

Important subdivisions for engineers include:

- Fluid dynamics
- Acoustic theory
- Calculus
- Mechanics
- Maxwell's equations that govern electromagnetism, mechanics, numerical relativity, etc.

*Mathematics* as defined by *mathematicians*, is the body of knowledge centered on such concepts as quantity, structure, space, and change, and also the academic discipline that studies them.

## UsesEdit

Knowledge and use of basic mathematics have always been an inherent and integral part of individual and group life.

Today, mathematics is used throughout the world in many fields, including natural science, business, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences such as economics. Applied mathematics, the application of mathematics to such fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new disciplines.

## HistoryEdit

Indian mathematics—which here is the mathematics that emerged in South Asia from ancient times until the end of the 18th century—had its beginnings in the Bronze Age Indus Valley civilization (2600-1900 BCE) and the Iron Age Vedic culture (1500-500 BCE). Some mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics.

## Other mathematical findingsEdit

### Indian mathematicsEdit

Ancient and medieval Indian mathematical works, all composed in Sanskrit, usually consisted of a section of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated with great economy in verse in order to aid memorization by a student.

### Harappan Mathematics (2600 BCE – 1700 BCE)Edit

*See also: Indus Valley Civilization*

The earliest evidence of the use of mathematics in South Asia is in the artifacts of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also called the *Harappan civilization*. The people of the IVC manufactured bricks whose dimensions were in the proportion 4:2:1, considered favorable for the stability of a brick structure. They mass produced weights in regular geometrical shapes, which included hexahedra, barrels, cones, and cylinders, thereby demonstrating knowledge of basic geometry.

### The Oral Mathematical TraditionEdit

Mathematicians of ancient and early medieval India were almost all Sanskrit pandits ("learned man"), who were trained in Sanskrit language and literature, and possessed "a common stock of knowledge in grammar vyakarana, exegesis mimamsa and logic nyaya".

### Jaina Mathematics (400 BCE - 200 CE)Edit

Although Jainism as a religion and philosophy predates its most famous exponent, Mahavira (6th century BC), who was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha, most Jaina texts on mathematical topics were composed after the 6th century BCE. Jaina mathematicians are important historically as crucial links between the mathematics of the Vedic period and that of the "Classical period."

### Bakhshali ManuscriptEdit

The oldest extant mathematical manuscript in South Asia is the *Bakhshali Manuscript*, a birch bark manuscript written in "Buddhist hybrid Sanskrit. The manuscript was discovered in 1881 by a farmer while digging in a stone enclosure in the village of Bakhshali, near Peshawar (then in British India and now in Pakistan).

### Kerala Mathematics (1300 - 1600)Edit

- Main article: Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics

The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, South India and included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar.

ORHAN CREATED ENGINEERING IN 400 BC

## See alsoEdit

- http://www.wikia.com/wiki/Mathematics
- http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indian_mathematics&action=edit
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amartya_Sen
- http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mathematics&action=edit

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