A nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the characteristics of a fluid flow as it exits from an enclosed chamber into some medium.
What is a nozzleEdit
Nozzles are frequently used to control the rate of flow, direction, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them.
Nozzles can be described as convergent (narrowing down from a wide diameter to a smaller diameter in the direction of the flow) or divergent (expanding from a smaller diameter to a larger one) or de Laval nozzles/convergent-divergent (CD nozzles).
Convergent nozzles accelerate fluids, but do not exceed the speed of sound in the fluid due to sonic choking at the narrowest point. Divergent nozzles slow fluids, if the flow is subsonic, but accelerate sonic or supersonic fluids. Convergent-divergent nozzles accelerate fluids that have choked in the convergent section to supersonic speeds.
High velocity nozzlesEdit
Frequently the goal is to increase the kinetic energy of the flowing medium at the expense of its pressure energy and/or internal energy. Very common use which almost everybody is seen is the nozzle used for fire fighting by the fire fighting organisation.
Some nozzles are shaped to produce a stream that is of a particular shape. For example Extrusion molding is a way of producing lengths of metals or plastics or other materials with a particular cross-section.
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