A pendulum is an object that is attached to a pivot about which it can swing freely. This object is subject to a restoring motion that will accelerate it toward an equilibrium position. When the pendulum is displaced from its place of rest, the restoring force will cause the pendulum to oscillate about the equilibrium position.

A basic example is the simple gravity pendulum or bob pendulum. This is a weight (or bob) on the end of a massless string, which, when initially displaced, will swing back and forth under the influence of gravity over its central (lowest) point.

The regular motion of pendulum can be used for time keeping, and pendula are used to regulate pendulum clocks.

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