Thermal insulation refers to the materials specifically designed to reduce the flow of heat by limiting conduction, convection, or both where as the term insulation in general refers to the material that reduces or prevents the transmission of heat or sound or electricity.
First type is the one which blocks the flow heat to adjacent atmosphere. Examples are, the heat covering over heating vessels, such as domestic heaters and covering over the boiler furnaces etc., in utility power stations.
Another type is the covering over chilled vessels to avoid outside heat penetrating inside as found in many chilling industries and domestic air conditioning units at homes and offices.
(to be continued)